Session 6 | Romans 2:12-
Romans 1:18-3:39 | The Case Rejected
Supplemental Resource: Romans Graphically Presented, pgs. 5-6
*Romans 2:2-16 | God's Work** Under Law*
Supplemental Resource: Romans Graphically Presented, pg 10
Romans 2:12-16 | The Jew And The Gentile In Judgment
Supplemental Resource: Romans Graphically Presented, pg. 16
**Verse 12 -- Black
Since verse 2 we have seen God's Work Under Law. During the age of the law, those who sinned without law shall also perish without law. That is, without law there is no remedy except to perish. This would align with Paul's teaching in Ephesians 2:12, that those outside of Israel have no hope, they are without God in the world. Those within Israel who have sinned in the law and did so during the age of law shall be judged by the law. This matches what Jesus said in John 5:45.
For those who desire to apply this directly to the Christian life in the age of grace, one must ask how, in any sense applicable today, a person who sinned in the law shall be judged by the law? Yet this is precisely what Paul says. The only way to reconcile this with our dispensation is to not apply it to our dispensation.
Verse 13 - Black
The plain sense of these words goes against what most preachers teach today, because most preachers mix dispensations. Here, Paul is not (and cannot be) talking about the age of grace, but he is clearly talking about how a person shall be justified under the age of law. Most of Christianity insists that this verse was simply never true, but because they cannot say such a thing, they use linguistic gymnastics to make justified mean something other than what it means (though by Romans 5:1 they will go back to literal). Others will say something like, the doers of the law shall be justified*, but there are no actual doers of the Law. *This is the same lame argument given by Calvinists for the "whosoever will" passages and is unacceptably deceptive. Paul gives no indication whatsoever that there are no doers of the law, and, in fact, claims himself to be righteous according to the law in Philippians 3:6.
From the beginning, the law was presented as something that worked for those who worked it.
Verses 14-15 - Black
These verses align with the first part of verse 12, concerning those who sinned without law and shall also perish without law. This group is here made plain, the Gentiles, which have not the law (v. 14). The reason they perish without law (v. 12) is because they make it up as they go, taking the average of what they've heard about the law.
The structure of verses 12-15 is as follows:
A - Those without law (12a)
B - Those with law (12b)
B' - Those with law (13)
A' - Those without law (14-15).
Verse 16 -- Black
Verse 16 completes verse 12. The great challenge is the phrase, according to my Gospel. Neither the judgment of secrets nor the Judge Himself (Jesus Christ) was not known prior to Paul. See Matthew 12:36 for the former and John 5:22 for the later. Therefore, in this instance we cannot take the words according to my Gospel to mean that this is exclusive to my Gospel but rather that it is in accord with the Pauline Gospel. That is, the future judgment is not removed with the Pauline Gospel even though those in the age of grace are not subject to such judgment (for they are righteous in Christ).
*Romans 2:17-3:19 | The Miserable State of Judaism*
Romans 2:17-3:2 | The Challenge of the Jew
Supplemental Resource: Romans Graphically Presented, pg 17
*Verse 17-20 -- Black*
These verses constitute one sentence and one thought, and thus will be taken as a whole.
In these verses, we find confirmation that the book of Romans is delivered to a Jewish audience. The description of the Jew in these verses is meant to be positive in every way. The things described in these verses are exactly that which a good Jew should have been doing. They were to rest in the law and make boast of God, etc.
The Jews had the μόρφωσις [morphosis] of knowledge and of the truth in the law. The word morphosis signifies that the knowledge and truth is actually present in the Law, it is not the *mere appearance* but the substance itself (compare Phil. 2:6 and Psalm 19:7-9). The Jews indeed had knowledge of God's expectations and the truth about a right relationship with God, and these were contained in the law
Verses 21-24 -- Black
Paul now comes to his issues with Judaism. Namely, the Jew had the law but did not always keep it. Paul now comes to his issues with Judaism. Namely, the Jew had the law but did not always keep it. The heart of the matter was that such duplicity caused the name of God to be blasphemed among the Gentiles (v. 24). This is as it is written (v. 24), likely a general reference to the repeated prophetic condemnations of Israel when she failed to live faithfully.
Verse 25 -- Black
For Paul to says that circumcision verily **profiteth is in contradiction with Pauline arguments for Gentiles, but this is not for Gentiles, but for Jews who are law-keepers. Paul's argument is that law obedience must go along with circumcision.
Verses 26-27 -- Black
Once again, Paul, who later so strongly argues against the value of keeping the Law, here argues that the one who keeps the righteousness of the law will be counted for circumcision. That is, an uncircumcised man can be counted among the circumcision by becoming circumcised, according to the law. And if an uncircumcised man was to come into the law and fulfill it, he would be much more honorable than the circumcised man who dost transgress the law.
In other words, it is not the birthright of the circumcision to inherit the promises, but such promises are inherited by works.
Verses 28-29 -- Black
This is not an argument that circumcision of the flesh was not necessary, but rather than it was only part of what was necessary. A spiritual reality must support the physical reality.
Verses 3:1-2- Black
Paul speaks briefly of the advantage of being a Jew, and says that such profit is much in every way.
Unto the Jews were committed the oracles of God. This advantage is so great that Paul puts this chieflyπρῶτος“first."
Compare Deuteronomy 4:7-8.
The non-Jewish world owes a debt of gratitude to the Jewish people for their diligence in receiving, respecting, and preserving the oracles of God.